Технология PoE: что это, подбор устройств, нюансы применения

В вопросах безопасности, видеонаблюдения и создания на этой основе сети, не последнюю роль занимает PoE коммутатор. В рамках статьи рассмотрим, что такое PoE, что такое PoE коммутатор, как правильно его подобрать, как правильно подключить роботизированную или обычную IP-камеру.

О технологии PoE

В 2003 году, когда появилась технология PoE (Power over Ethernet), для всех это стало достаточно высоким прорывом. В то время, PoE дала возможность получать информацию и питание по одной витой паре. Естественно, это очень удобно, поскольку тянуть необходимо всего один кабель (сетевой), вместо двух (сетевой и силовой). Популяризация технологии привела к каскаду действий - начался ряд обновлений PoE и пошла линейка эволюции за счет того, что: 

  • были убраны дополнительные блоки;
  • было облегчено обслуживание систем;
  • за подачу питания и информацию стало отвечать одно устройство - коммутатор.

Плюс, если коммутатор имеет логику, с помощью которой можно включить / выключить порт, таким образом можно перезагружать IP-видеокамеру.

Это существенно сокращает время, поскольку не нужно идти на объект / лезть на крышу, чтобы перезагрузить камеру, если с ней что-то произошло (например, залипла). 

PoE - это технология передачи данных и питания в одном сетевом кабеле витой пары.

Коммутатор PoE - это специализированное устройство для соединения нескольких узлов компьютерной сети в пределах одного или нескольких сегментов сети, обеспеченный как минимум одним портом, поддерживающим технологию PoE.

Эволюция технологии

Когда в 2003 вышла технология PoE, то на камеру она может отдавать мощность до 15 Вт. Вольтаж составлял от 36 до 57 В. В целом, устройствам этого хватала и они работали хорошо. Но большие, мощные, роботизированные камеры требовали большей мощности поэтому приходилось ставить дополнительный блок питания.

Я помню это время, когда использовались 24 В большие блоки для установки одной роботизированной камеры. В целом, для такой "машины", даже с PoE пришлось вернуться к тому, от чего уходили.

Но в 2009 году выходит новая технология под названием Hi-PoE (PoE+), которая позволила передавать мощность до 30 Вт. На тот момент цель была достигнута. Роботизированная камера смогла работать по витой паре нормально, без недостатка в мощности. При этом потребляемое напряжение было примерно от 44 В до 48 В.

Спустя еще 4 года, в 2013, выходит еще лучше Super Hi-PoE с возможностью передачи мощности 60 Вт. Таким образом можно было закрывать более мощные роботизированные камеры, либо дополнительно другие устройства, поскольку вся технология PoE используется не только в системах видеонаблюдения, а в телекоммуникациях, в сетевых  технологиях, где нужно подключить большое количество точек доступа. 

Ограничения

При этом, мы ограничиваемся в расстоянии до 100 метров. Так как вся эта технология всего лишь ограничивается возможностями кабеля витой пары. 

Чтобы протянуть линию на большее расстояние, был придуман улучшенный стандарт PoE. В нем можно переключать режимы коммутаторов в режим Extended. 

Это режим разрешает передавать на расстояние до 250 метров сигнал и питание.

Понимая для себя, что если нужно подключить роботизированную камеру, либо же обычную видеокамеру на расстояние 200 либо 180 метров, то нужно выбрать коммутатор, посмотреть сзади наличие режима "Extended" и переключить его. Режим дает понять, что по 1,2,3 или по всем портам будет удлиненная линия. 

Выбор PoE коммутатора

Все написано в характеристиках, поэтому, выбирая для себя коммутатор, обращайте внимание на:

  • расстояние, на которое нужно проложить кабель (если оно более 100 метров, необходима поддержка режима Extended коммутатором);
  • количество портов должно быть не меньше, чем монтируемых камер (в противном случае придется задействовать дополнительные элементы сетевой конструкции, например, PoE сплиттеры);
  • возможности портов, чтобы те могли выключаться и включаться по команде;
  • возможность не только локального, но и удаленного управления через внешние сети или Интернет.

Следует учитывать, что камера тоже должна поддерживать технологию PoE, иначе ничего не получится. 

Применение на практике

Когда ведется работа на больших объектах, где линия достигает 500-600 метров, приходится выбирать:

  1. Тянуть оптику. Это не всегда удобно, так как надо искать 220В на крайние точки, то есть куда был доведен оптический сигнал. Ставить медиаконверторы, брать 220В и там устанавливать IP-видеокамеры, передавая сигнал на основной коммутатор.
  2. Использовать технологию ePoE - это технология от Dahua Technology, которая позволила передавать питание и сигнал на расстояние до 800 метров. 

Естественно, поддерживать ePoE нужно коммутатору и IP-камере. Узнать, поддерживает ли устройство ePoE можно с помощью:

  • изучения характеристики на сайте производителя устройства;
  • стикера ePoE на коробке;

Если это довольно стандартная ситуация, что необходимо протянуть линию на расстояние 200 метров, возьмите коммутаторы от Dahua, UTEPO, ONV и смотрите на режим Extended. На самом коммутаторе написано, по каким портам этот режим работает. То есть, если сигнал следует передать на большое расстояние, следует переключить режим. 

Нюансы подключения

Во всех режимах распиновка кабеля никак не меняется. Обжимается она стандартным обжимом, что используются в сетевых технологиях. 

Еще, есть специальные разветвители. Если ваше устройство вдруг не поддерживает PoE, но есть желание передать по одной витой паре питание и сигнал, то в целом для нетребовательной IP-камеры можно применять специальные PoE адаптеры.

Большие расстояния и большую мощность с них взять не получится, потому как адаптеры поддерживают питание 12 В, но не 48 В, как в PoE. Для расстояния 15-20 метров можно проложить одну витую пару, приобрести PoE-адаптер и подключить видеокамеру к коммутатору.


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